What is Backflow?
Water distribution systems are designed with the intention of the water flowing
in a certain direction-from the distribution system to the consumer. However, hydraulic
condition within the system may deviate from the "normal" conditions, causing water
to flow in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is possible (and common) for water
to flow in the opposite direction in unprotected systems. This is called backflow.
What is a Cross-Connection?
A cross-connestion is an unprotected actual or potential connection between a potable
water system used to supply water for drinking purposes and any source of system
containing unapproved water or a substance that is not or cannot be approved as
save, wholesome, and potable. By-pass arrangements, jumper connections, removable
sections, swivel or changeover devices, or other devices through which backflow
could occur, shall be considered to be cross-connections.
What is Back Siphonage?
Back siphonage is caused by mainline piping failures or drafting due to high demands.
For example, it is a condition that can occur when the drinking water system pressure
drops below that of the fire protection system, drawing the fire protection system
water back into the drinking water system.