National Frontier Trails Museum

About Us

The National Frontier Trails Museum is a museum, interpretive center, and research library dedicated to telling the rich history of America’s principle western trails.


The Story

One of the most fascinating epics in American History is the story of the overland migrations across the western American wilderness during the mid-nineteenth century. Thousands of wagon trains slowly snaked their way along rugged trails, crossing wind-swept prairies, barren deserts, and formidable mountain ranges. The pioneer adventurers faced storms, mud, swollen rivers, accidents, deserts, choking dust, thirst, deadly plagues, and many other dangers to seek trade, new homes and opportunities in the West. Many did not survive the grueling journey, with tens of thousands of unmarked graves silently guarding the trails today. This extraordinary saga ranks today as the largest voluntary, overland mass migration in the history of the world.


The Trails

The three principle trails which crossed the West were the Santa Fe, Oregon, and California. The Santa Fe Trail, begun in 1821, was a 900-mile foreign trade route unique in American History due to its overland rather than seafaring commerce. The 2,000-mile Oregon Trail began to be heavily traveled in 1843 by settlers wanting to establish new homes in the northwest, while others forked off on the equally long and grueling California Trail to seek their fortunes in the gold fields. Together, these three rugged pathways and their pioneers changed the face and history of America.


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The Town

Independence, Missouri, a frontier village of only a few hundred people poised on the edge of American civilization, was the principle "jumping-off" point for all three of these western trails. Founded in 1827, the town first became the eastern terminus for the Santa Fe Trail, and later as an "outfitting" post for the Oregon and California emigrants as well. Every spring during the trails period the center of present-day Independence was blanketed by thousands of emigrants, complete with wagons, teams, other livestock, tents, cargo, and supplies. Commotion, confusion, and excitement reigned as wagons were purchased, loaded, and organized into trains.


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The Spring

Many of the emigrants washed and watered their livestock with water from the large, free public spring once located just a hundred yards north of today's National Frontier Trails Museum. Thousands of wagons rolled down the hill from the square and passed this spring and crowded camping site, bound for Mexico to trade, or to a new home in Oregon or California. Water still flows from this pioneer spring on the grounds of the museum.

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The Mill

In the 1830s a small gristmill, utilizing water from the public spring, was in operation just to the north of the current Trails Museum. Peter Waggoner purchased the mill and operated it until his retirement, at which time the mill passed to his son, William. William Waggoner rebuilt and enlarged the business. Converting from grinding grist to producing flour, William went into partnership with George Porterfield Gates to found the Waggoner-Gates Milling Company. After nearly a century of being one of the major employers in Independence, the mill stopped production after World War II. In 1967 an explosion and spectacular fire reduced most of the large mill complex to rubble.


The Museum

In 1989-90 the National Frontier Trails Museum was built by the State of Missouri with the surviving portion of the Waggoner-Gates Mill incorporated into the design. The old mill's locker room was refurbished as well, and serves as the national headquarters of the Oregon-California Trails Association. Operated by the City of Independence, the Trails Museum tells the story of the exploration, acquisition, and settlement of the American West. An award-winning introductory film prepares visitors for the interpretive exhibits which guide them along the Santa Fe, Oregon, and California Trails. Quotations from trail diaries are extensively used, allowing pioneer travelers to tell of their experiences in their own words.



9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Saturday; 12:30 - 4:30 p.m. Sunday.

For further information: National Frontier Trails Museum, 318 W. Pacific, Independence, Missouri, 64050. Telephone: (816) 325-7575.